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12 agile principles

Die zwölf Prinzipien für agile Softwareentwicklung lassen sich auch auf allgemeines  Agile project management  und  Agile work  anwenden:

  • Begeistere den Kunden ... der Nutzen muss erkennbar werden.

  • Begrüße Veränderung ... radikale Anforderungsänderungen sind immer willkommen.

  • Denke und liefere in schnellen kleinen Schritten.

  • Arbeite gut Zusammen … auch crossfunktional und mit unterschiedlichen Charakteren.

  • Schaffe Arbeitsumgebung mit Vertrauen und guter Unterstützung ... rund um motivierte Individuen.

  • Face to Face Kommunikation anstelle von Bürokratie und Politik.

  • Gute Zwischenergebnisse schaffen Fortschritt und Erfolg.

  • Habe einen klaren Takt ... konstante Iterationen schaffen Regelmäßigkeit.

  • Guter Support ist Voraussetzung für Geschwindigkeit.

  • Erkenne und Vermeide Verschwendung ... keep it simple.

  • Arbeite in kleinen, selbst-organisierenden Teams ... vermeide die Trennung von Ausführung und Verantwortung oder Entscheidung.

  • Reflektiere und verbessere ... sowohl inhaltliche Ergebnisse als auch das Vorgehen im Team.


Im Übergang hin zu  Agilem Arbeiten , four fundamental values are changing.  This does not mean that the old values are superfluous and wrong, but only that there is a shift towards new values. The four shifts in values are:

  • Schnelle Reaktion auf Veränderung ist wichtiger als die Einhaltung eines festgelegten Planes.

  • Close and active cooperation with the customer / client (also internal customer in the company) is more important than contract negotiations or clear rules & regulations

  • Funktionierende Prototypen ( Minimal viable Products ) sind wichtiger als perfekte Ergebnisse und eine umfassende Dokumentation.

  • Menschen und Interaktionen werden wieder wichtiger als Prozesse und Werkzeuge.


 The 5S method describes a procedure of optimization in 5 steps. This method, which was previously implemented in the factories, is now used in all areas of the company as one of the basic methods when starting optimisation initiatives. The original formulation of these steps comes from Japan. In Japanese as well as in English or German, all terms begin with "S": 

  • Seiri - Sortieren: Das Notwendige vom Unnötigen trennen und das Unnötige wegschmeißen.

  • Seiso - Säubern: Beseitige alle Verschmutzungen.

  • Seiton - Sichtbar machen: Anordnen und visualisieren der nützlichen Dinge gemäß ihrer Anwendung.

  • Seiketsu - Standardisieren: Schaffe Regeln für die beste, einfachste und sicherste Weise etwas zu tuen.

  • Shukan - Sichern: Halte diese Regeln und Abläufe ein und verbessere sie weiter systematisch.


Waste is everything that does not lead to an increase in value and for which the customer (including the internal customer in processes) is reluctant to pay.

Wir teilen diese Verschwendung in zwei Kategorien ein: 

  • Notwendige Verschwendung … Alle Tätigkeiten, die zwar nicht den Wert steigern, aber für die Verrichtung der Wertschöpfung notwendig sind.

  • Unnötige Verschwendung ... Alle Tätigkeiten, die für den Prozess nicht notwendig sind und damit vermieden werden können. 

In the Classical Kaizen teaching, waste is grouped into 7 clusters (7 types of wastage). In the administrative environment it has become commonplace to look for time thieves in addition to the word waste. Mike Rother has described the ability to recognise waste and distinguish it from the actual creation of value as "learning to see".


A

In a world of constant change, it goes without saying that the field of personnel management also requires new structures. More flexible management guidelines, less rigid rules, shorter decision-making paths, flatter hierarchies and more self-determined teamwork - all this also changes the demands on managers. Agile managers are expected to have good self-organization, a high level of solution and process competence, good moderation skills and team coaching, good communication with other departments, entrepreneurial thinking, and last but not least, a high level of authenticity. Ultimately, it is all about both that and about shifting principles, e.g: From hierarchies to more networks, from control to more empowerment, from planning to more experimentation, from privacy to more transparency.

Agile was the buzzword par excellence in 2018, but still gives a clear direction in many aspects (Agile leadership, Agile organization, Agile projects, Agile methods). All in all, agile working means the ability to adapt successfully in a constantly changing environment. This ability to adapt requires dynamic and stable components in the corporate environment. Stable components can be, for example, a clear vision, transparent target states, the culture and the corporate values derived from it. Dynamic components are dynamic, self-determined teams without rigid management and hierarchical structures or the quick reaction to new insights. Here 4 agile Werte  und  12 agile Prinzipien ).

Im Februar 2001 wurden  vier grundlegende agile Werte  und  12 Prinzipien  were formulated. This was set up by 17 first signatories as an Agile Manifesto for Agile Software Development (or Agile Manifesto for short) as a successful model for software development at a meeting in Utah (USA). Today these values (see also:  4 agile Werte  und  12 agile Prinzipien ) sind heute auch allgemein anerkannt für  Agile work  und  Agile project management .

Agile project management is the generic term for various agile project management methods that have their origin in software development. Agile project management is an alternative to the traditional methods of planning and executing projects and thus a way of working that does not require planning and structuring the course of the project. Agile project management is based on corresponding agile process models and methods. The most widespread agile process model is Scrum .

The term "Work 4.0" ties in with the current discussion about the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0), but moves the forms of work and working conditions to the centre - not only in the industrial sector, but in the entire world of work.

"Work 1.0" refers to the beginning industrial society of the end of the 18th century and the first workers' organisations. "Work 2.0" refers to the beginning mass production and the beginnings of the welfare state at the end of the 19th century. Industrialisation brought new social problems at that time, and the increasing pressure of organised labour formed an important basis for the introduction of the first social insurance schemes in the German Reich. "Work 3.0" encompasses the period of consolidation of the welfare state and workers' rights on the basis of the social market economy: employers and employees negotiate with each other as social partners on an equal footing. There is no question of the need to safeguard common interests both within the company and among employees as a whole. This was later followed by the partial withdrawal of social rights, also in view of increasing competitive pressure and the opening of national markets. "Work 4.0" will be more networked, digital and flexible. What the future world of work will look like in detail is still open.

(Quelle:  https://arbeit4null.com/Infos/Glossar/)

Healthy working today is less a question of workplaces and equipment, but much more a question of behaviour. Ergonomic chairs must be adjusted correctly, height-adjustable tables must also be used, modern screens must be set up so that no glare occurs, and much more. It is a matter of spreading knowledge and awareness and using the intervention measures offered by companies and society.

B

Productivity in cooperation between departments, divisions and teams is essentially due to an efficient meeting culture. In addition to the generally accepted cultural elements such as punctuality, discussion behaviour, moderation and meeting rules, there are other criteria for success:

  • Structured preparation: invitation with agenda, clearly formulated meeting objective, defined group of participants with clearly assigned tasks, ...

  • Structured preparation: invitation with agenda, clearly formulated meeting objective, defined group of participants with clearly assigned tasks, ...

  • Innovative Formate von Besprechungen: Kurze "Stehungen", Videokonferenzen, Online-Besprechungen im Internet, ...

  • Klare Zeiten für Besprechungen und Zeitfenster für die Organisation, in denen keine Besprechungen angesetzt sind (Besprechungsfreie Zeiten).

Beim Blended Learning werden klassische (mit Präsenz verbundene) Lernelemente mit E-Learning verbunden (Internetbasierte Lernelemente).

The burn-down chart serves to visualise work already done and work still to be done. The Burn-Down-Chart is available in two versions:  

  • Als Sprint Burndown wird es zur Verfolgung vom Sprintfortschritt verwendet.

  • Als Release Burndown wird es zur Verfolgung vom Produktfortschritt über mehrere Sprints hinweg verwendet.

Sprint Burndown shows the time in days on the horizontal axis and the number of tasks remaining to be completed on the vertical axis. This results in a line of open tasks, which ideally meets the zero line at the end of the sprint. Using the Sprint Burndown it is possible to better estimate the achievement of the sprint goal. The development team updates the Daily Scrum  das Sprint Burndown. 

(Quelle: wikipedia)

C

Service providers who, in return for payment, perform tasks for a company such as data research or text production. The contracts are awarded via digital platforms (cf. Crowdworking ).

(Quelle: https://arbeit4null.com/Infos/Glossar/)

Collaboration tools include all types of software that allow multiple users, regardless of their location, to communicate and work on joint projects. Examples are Circuit, Slack, WhatsApp, Telegram, ... Teams, Skype, Hangouts, ...

Working together less alone - could be the motto of coworking, in English called collaborative or joint working. The so-called coworking space (collaborative workplace) thus corresponds to the desk of the digital world: flexible, rentable and communication-enhancing. Those who work predominantly in a home office, are self-employed or work on a project basis within a start-up ( Start-up ) for whom coworking spaces offer the possibility of renting a workplace. For many coworkers, the advantages are the exchange with people from a wide range of industries, the change of location and the flexible work schedule. Coworking spaces are very popular in the start-up scene, as they replace renting your own office space.

(Quelle: https://www.hallokarriere.com/arbeiten-4-0-lexikon-der-digitalisierung/)

In crowdworking, jobs, usually divided into smaller tasks, are assigned to crowdworkers via digital platforms. These assignments can be awarded to the company's own employees (internal crowdworking) or to third parties (external crowdworking), who often work as solo freelancers for many clients worldwide.

Crowdworking is currently a niche in the international labour market, but this is likely to change in the future. Crowdworkers use the Internet to perform small and large tasks from anywhere in the world using a digital device. Their clients - mostly international companies - need the mobile workers for software tests, the collection of geodata, product design or video editing. Within crowd platforms, it is clearly defined which daily wage is paid for which task. An order is accepted at the push of a button (therefore also called clickworking). Many crowdworkers work in their spare time, in addition to their main job. In order to prevent precarious working conditions, there are now trade unions for crowdworkers. Crowdworkers appreciate the flexible division of work and the uncomplicated possibility to earn extra money. The fact that they often do not have to provide references or CVs before a job is a particular incentive for crowdworking.

(Quelle: https://arbeit4null.com/Infos/Glossar/; https://www.hallokarriere.com/arbeiten-4-0-lexikon-der-digitalisierung/)

D

At the beginning of each working day, the development team (SCRUM team) meets for a Daily SCRUM of max. 15 minutes, in which SCRUM Master and Product Owner are often present but not actively involved, if they are not editing backlog elements themselves. The purpose of the Daily SCRUM is to exchange information. The Daily SCRUM does not solve problems - it is rather about getting an overview of the current state of work. It has proven to be very useful for this purpose that each team member, with the help of the project board, says what they have achieved since the last Daily SCRUM, what they want to achieve by the next Daily SCRUM, and what stands in their way. 

(Quelle: wikipedia)

A good data or document storage is in "flow". This means that after a certain period of time even the current work files become reference files and finally archive files. This applies equally to analogue files (paper) and digital files and documents. The filing structure is organised so transparently that there is no waste in this subject area. The main problems or wastes result from search times, double filing, media breaks between paper and digital documents, different working methods of people who have to represent themselves, ...

The Definition of Done (DoD) is a common understanding of the SCRUM team under which conditions a work can be considered done. It usually includes quality criteria, constraints and general non-functional requirements. As the experience of the SCRUM team increases, the Definition of Done evolves.

(Quelle: wikipedia)

Design Thinking is an approach to solving problems and developing new ideas. The aim is to find solutions that are convincing from the user's point of view (user perspective). In contrast to other innovation methods, Design Thinking can or is sometimes not described as a method or process, but rather as an approach based on the three equally important basic principles of team, space and process.

(Quelle: wikipedia)

The fact that working now functions differently and that a new organisation is emerging means that workers are required to acquire new skills in order to make the world of work a successful one. Digital literacy is of particular importance in this respect. As digitalisation continues to advance, work processes are also changing. Communication no longer takes place directly with the contact person on site, but above all digitally with people all over the world. For this to succeed, employees must be prepared for such changes and be able to handle the technology. The resulting change in the principle of corporate hierarchy also requires employees to adapt to the new circumstances.

(Quelle:  https://mitteldeutsches-institut.de/arbeit-4-0/)

Digtales  Kanban-Board  zur Organisation von Aufgaben und konkrete Umsetzungsschritte. Beispiele sind: Trello, Meistertask, Wundelist, Meeting Workplace, …

Digital workflows map traditional, paper-based processes and procedures, which usually have to be implemented across departmental boundaries, into digital processes with computer support. In the transition from "manual" processes to digital workflows, many experts point out that the first step is to optimize the processes and free them from waste and only in the second step is the process automated or digitized. 

Disruption describes the replacement of proven technologies, products or processes by new, innovative solutions. The basis of almost all disruption is the identification and avoidance of inefficiencies. Disruption does not proceed step by step and continuously, but starts with completely different processes. An example of this is the continuous further development of sound carriers from vinyl records to CDs or DVDs through innovation. The real disruption then came through streaming.

In addition to disruption in products, disruptive approaches are increasingly being sought in the improvement of processes. Here, too, it is a matter of completely questioning previous courses of action and procedures and completely redesigning processes. The basis for disruption here is often changed framework conditions, a changed legal situation and new technical possibilities.

E

The efficient use of e-mail is a key success factor for productive office processes and personal work efficiency. In all studies on value creation in office processes, e-mail is considered one of the most significant Verschwendungsquellen (time thieves). Efficient work with e-mails has two main components: First, the individual processing of e-mails and the operation of the associated programs (e.g.: filing system, search times, use of small scripts, ...). Second, the e-mail culture and the effects of e-mail and its use on others (e.g.: too large distribution lists, chain mails, subject lines without any message, ...).

F

New, innovative working time models promote flexible time management and a better balance between career, personal life situation and family. Under the motto "work when and where you want to", work situations are created that bring advantages for employees and employers alike. Examples of working time models are:

  • Teilzeit: kürzere Arbeitszeit, z.B. nach der Elternzeit

  • Gleitzeit: Arbeitnehmer bestimmt in vorgegebenen Rahmen selbst Beginn und Ende der Arbeitszeit

  • Homeoffice: Arbeiten von zu Hause

  • Confidential working time: work is performed without checking the working time and, if applicable, the place of work, is not checked by the employer

  • Sabbaticals: mehrwöchige bis mehrmonatige Auszeit

  • Jobsharing: Form von Teilzeit: Zwei Arbeitnehmer teilen sich eine Stelle

(Source: © Richard Kugel und https://www.hallokarriere.com/arbeiten-4-0-lexikon-der-digitalisierung/)

H

Form of work in which work is carried out outside the business premises and from the employee's private rooms. This concerns both permanent employees and self-employed workers. In the case of alternating telework, work is carried out both at the employer's premises and at home.

(Quelle: https://arbeit4null.com/Infos/Glossar/)

I

Inkubatoren sind Einrichtungen, die Unternehmen auf den Weg der Existenzgründung bringen und sie dabei unterstützen.

(Quelle: www.gruenderszene.de)

K

The classic approaches of Kaizen can be transferred to indirect processes and the office world. Here too, the topic of waste can be separated from value creation and broken down into the classic 7 Verschwendungsarten grouped by kaizen. Many companies speak in the office in addition to the topic of waste of time thieves. Again, go to Gemba (the place where it happens), observe Genbutsu (the real things / processes), discover Muda (waste) and do Kaizen (change for the better).

The continuous improvement process (CIP) lives from the implementation of ideas and measures. In agile structures, these are increasingly divided into small, time-limited steps (task). A kanban board for these improvement steps is usually divided into 3-4 columns:

  • Speicher: Hier wird alles gesammelt. Es ergibt sich ein Überblick und nichts geht verloren.

  • In progress: In this column all tasks are activated that will be processed in the next period (1-2 weeks). Now persons are assigned and deadlines for processing are set.

  • To check: It may be that releases or test steps are necessary for individual tasks or that coordination with other departments or managers must take place again.

  • Erledigt: Hier werden alle Karten gesammelt, die abgearbeitet worden sind.

It is important that a Kanban board works according to the "pull principle". This means that only as many cards are activated from the memory as the organization can process. This means that all activated cards flow through the columns at short intervals and are processed promptly.

L

The classic basic principles of lean can be applied to indirect processes and the office world. The respective approaches (pull, beat, flow and perfection) must be reinterpreted and adapted, but are equally valid from the basic idea. The same applies to the classic lean methods such as 7 Arten der Verschwendung 5S Kanban , usw.

As the world of work changes and digitisation continues to advance, training and learning are becoming increasingly important. This is the only way for employees to respond to the changing workplace. This includes not only dealing with technology, learning new computer applications, expanding social skills, but also finding new professional niches when their own work is threatened by machines or computers. Thus, professional life is shaped by lifelong learning.

(Quelle: https://mitteldeutsches-institut.de/arbeit-4-0/)

M

Becoming measurable means that clear performance promises are defined for a work or process. These performance promises are assigned clear parameters by which fulfilment and deviations can be identified. (Example: "We do it in 24 hours" as opposed to "We do it fast"). The basis for meaningful value propositions is communication with the customer of this service and alignment with the respective expectations. In the next step, deviations can be identified by measuring performance promises and the causes of these deviations can be assigned to each individual case. This puts the focus on further process improvements.

The term Minimal viable Products (MVP) originates from the Lean Startup idea. The MVP, which is created quickly and easily, is equipped with only the most necessary core functions.  It allows for quick feedback from customers. The feedback is then used to expand and improve the MVP round by round. The goal is to involve the customer in every phase of a project. 

Also nonterritorial work. "Work when and where you want." The basis for this are various prerequisites and trends. Desk sharing, mobile computers and telephones, mobile access to data as well as greater flexibility in working hours and an increase in organisational flexibility. The concept of the non-territorial office is essential: Office space with no or only partially fixed occupancy through personally assigned workstations or work groups. With this type of office, most of the workstations are available to all employees and are used according to current professional needs. Mobile working is not limited to the actual office, but can be continued on the way to work, in cafés or at home.

N

New office worlds support the individual requirements of the respective work task in terms of creativity, concentration, teamwork or communication. Only the increase in open areas where employees can easily exchange information and work makes network-based cooperation with flat hierarchies possible. This requires a variety of different rooms and work opportunities. In the office of the future, the use of technologies will go far beyond previous possibilities in the coming years: "The networking of people, work places and technology will become even closer thanks to sensors or the Internet of Things. At some point, the entire company - from the appointment calendar to the furniture, the room booking system, the individual employee to the conference room - will be linked and networked". In this way, the new office worlds will provide users and organisations with the best possible support in their activities.

(Quelle:   © Marc Nicolaisen, Steelcase;  https://www.kommunikationsraum.net/arbeitsbueroraeume/buerowelten-im-wandel-der-zeit/)

The concept New Work describes the new way of working of today's society in the global and digital age. The term was coined by the Austro-American social philosopher Frithjof Bergmann. The central values of the concept of New Work are independence, freedom and participation in the community. New Work is intended to offer new ways of freeing up space for creativity and the development of one's own personality, thus contributing something truly essential and important to the labour market. In this way, genuine "freedom of action" is made possible. 

New Work basiert auf fünf wesentlichen Ansätzen: 

  • Individualität und Einbeziehung jedes einzelnen Mitarbeiters

  •  eine moderne Führungskultur

  •  Agilität in den Entscheidungsprozessen

  •  Flexibilität der Arbeitsorte und als fünfter Punkt die 

  • neuen Bürowelten.

(Quelle: https://www.gruenderszene.de/lexikon/begriffe/new-work?interstitial)

O

Office Excellence is a management concept for optimizing productivity in the office and in administrative processes. It ranges from the activities at the individual workstation (e.g. working with e-mails), through collaboration with direct colleagues in a department or work team (e.g. uniform filing standards), to work processes and company processes (e.g. accounting for a business trip or processing a customer order). The basic goal of Office Excellence is to make work easier for office workers. This goes hand in hand with improving productivity, quality and throughput times for office work. 

(Quelle:   © Richard Kugel; wikipedia)

The Office Excellence Award recognizes teams or companies that have demonstrably made the most effective efforts to increase office efficiency compared to other companies. The Office Excellence Award has been awarded since 2003 and is initially based on a self-assessment in the form of a questionnaire by those involved. In the second step, the best assessments are analysed and evaluated on site by an independent jury. Two categories form the basis for the Office Excellence Award:

  • Erstens wird die aktuelle Situation in den Büros, bei den Abläufen und bei der Arbeitskultur bewertet. 

  • Zweitens wird die Qualität und Dynamik des Verbesserungsprogramms bewertet. 

This includes the actual path and project structure, but also the methods and tools used to continuously improve office work towards Office Excellence. The winners will be honoured at the annual "Office Excellence Congress".

In an "office scorecard", the purpose of the organizational unit is presented as a measurable criterion (success or performance indicator) and two or more factors (drivers or disturbing factors) are measured on this performance indicator. These variables are placed in a visible context in a "triangle".

From the "customer's point of view", the performance indicator describes a parameter of the organizational unit relevant to success (e.g. process costs, throughput time, reaction time, error rate, ...). These values would also be used to evaluate the supplier in the case of an external award.

The drivers and disturbance variables count, measure or describe the factors influencing this key performance indicator (framework conditions, external influences, errors, ...). These values rather serve to justify the current situation and are starting points for improvement.

P

A paperless office dispenses with paper-bound documents in order to save work, increase efficiency and protect the environment, and uses only EDP-supported procedures (computers). The transition from paper documents to digital documents is in continuous progress. A key success factor is to avoid double filing and media discontinuity during the transition period.

The objective of performance management approaches is a systematic, multidimensional performance measurement, management and control as well as tracking of different application objects or performance levels (employees, teams, departments, processes) with the aim of continuous improvement of individual and company performance. In performance management, learning effects and employee motivation, among other things, must be built up. A performance measurement system serves as a data basis to support a balanced recording of performance. Today, the approach is often supported by regular team meetings at a team board (similar to the shop floor management approach in production).

(Quelle:   © Richard Kugel; wikipedia)

Auftraggeber, Kunde … verantwortlich für die Anforderungen an das Projekt / Produkt. Stellt die Anforderungen im  Product Backlog  zusammen, definiert die Zielzustände, priorisiert sie und wird nach jedem Sprint im  Sprint-Review and adapts the requirements if necessary. He alone is responsible for deciding on the project/product, its characteristics and the order of implementation. Thus it balances properties, delivery dates and costs.

The Product Backlog is an ordered list of the requirements for the product. The Product Backlog is dynamic and is constantly being developed. All work done by the project team must originate in the Product Backlog. The Product Owner  ist für die Pflege des Product Backlogs verantwortlich. Er verantwortet die Reihenfolge bzw. Priorisierung der Einträge.

The Product Backlog is not complete and does not make this claim. At the beginning of a project it contains the known and best understood requirements. The requirements in the product backlog should not be technical, but rather functional and user-oriented. One way to support this view is to formulate the product properties as user stories. Here the target states should be described precisely.

(Quelle:   © Richard Kugel; wikipedia)

Process mapping is the visual representation of successive activities in their temporal and logical sequence in processes. Who does what in which order? The individual activities / process steps are written on cards, which are then displayed in chronological order from left to right. For visual representation, the poster is divided into "swimming lanes" from top to bottom and then assigned to the individual process participants / departments / organisational units / persons. Each jump over swimming lanes shows an interface in the process.

Es gibt zahlreiche weitere kleine Werkzeuge im Prozessmapping die die Visualisierung weiter detaillieren:

  • Zeitleiste ... stellt die Bearbeitungszeit der einzelnen Tätigkeiten und die Durchlaufzeit der Prozessschritte dar.

  • Medienleiste ... stellt den Einsatz unterschiedlicher Medien zur Kommunikation im Prozess dar und visualisiert die Medienbrüche

  • Blitze ... visualisiert an den entsprechenden Stellen im Prozess Probleme und macht die Häufung transparent.

  • sanding ... displays the loops for queries and repetitions of sub-processes and makes the percentage frequency transparent.

  • One-pice-flow ... wenn Katen zusammenhängen werden die einzelnen Tätigkeit im Fluss ohne Unterbrechung durchgeführt.

  • u.v.m. 

Process mapping as a method is either supported by corresponding computer programs or visually represented manually with paper and poster.


The focus is less on the individual work step than on the process as a whole and the associated interfaces in the process. The quality and efficiency of the process is evaluated by the process customer and the "objects" in the process. A process-oriented company is oriented towards (cross-departmental or cross-divisional) business processes. Process orientation is thus based on processes that link activities with defined follow-up relationships and with a continuous flow of services. The processes are oriented towards the customer in order to create value for the customer and the company. On the one hand, this should improve coordination - fewer interfaces at departmental boundaries should lead to fewer errors in the timely and factual provision of (partial) services. The main targets of process orientation are throughput time (speed), error-proneness (quality) and productivity (costs).

R

Maturity models, define the levels of maturity for different subject areas and approaches. The more comprehensive the respective use of methods, tools and the implementation of the objectives belonging to the subject area, the higher the achieved score in the subject and the degree of maturity achieved. Maturity models in various forms are often the basis for auditing the implementation in change or improvement projects.

Robotic Process Automation (RPA) is an approach to process automation in which manual activities are learned and automated by so-called (bot) software robots. Software robots emulate the inputs on the existing presentation layer of an application software, the necessary steps are recorded with model-driven and self-learning approaches. Software robots are applications that imitate human interaction with user interfaces of software systems. Software robots work on the user interface in a similar way as a human would. 

(Quelle: wikipedia)

S

Pseudo self-employment is to be assumed if employment relationships are described by the contracting parties as self-employed legal relationships although, according to the actual design and implementation, it is legally a dependent employment.

(Quelle: https://arbeit4null.com/Infos/Glossar/)

SCRUM (SCRUM for "[the] crowd") is a process model for project and product management, especially for agile software development. It was originally developed in software engineering, but is independent of it. SCRUM is now used as a method in many other areas.

The basic idea is to lead a project step by step (tasks and measures are divided into short subtasks) with a self-organizing team (daily stand-up meetings) in cycles (only the next sprint is planned) successfully to the goal! 

The project is kept lean through prioritisation, "customer wishes" are quickly implemented, changes are flexibly accommodated in all project phases.

Die Vorteile sind:

  • The client (customer of the project) is closely involved and can prioritise individual tasks and specifications from iteration to iteration.

  • Detailspezifikation nur dann, wenn notwendig.

  • Hohe Transparenz und sichtbarer Projektfortschritt.

  • Umfang und Qualität der Lösung wachsen mit jeder Iteration.

  • Lerneffekte aus vorausgegangenen Iterationen werden genutzt, die Planung passt sich an.

Wesentliche Werkzeuge in SRUM sind:

Ist verantwortlich für den  Scrum -Prozess. Ausgebildet in den einzelnen SCRUM-Methoden, stellt er das Bindeglied zwischen  Product Owner  / Kunde und Projektteam dar.

The SCRUM Master is responsible for the success of SCRUM as a framework. He works together with the development team, but is not part of it himself. He introduces the SCRUM rules, checks that they are followed and takes care of the elimination of disturbances and obstacles. These include lack of communication and cooperation as well as personal conflicts within the development team, disruptions in the cooperation between Product Owner  and development team as well as external disturbances, for example requests from the specialist department to handle additional tasks during a sprint.

(Quelle:   © Richard Kugel; wikipedia)

Regular meetings at the team table (shop floor management / performance management) are an essential element of agile leadership. Success factors here are clear procedures of the meetings (in terms of time and content), a moderation that involves the team and integrates it into the decisions (leading by questions), participation / interest of the managers (they really care) and lived standards in the moderation (regularity).

Die Sprint-Retrospektive steht am Ende eines  Sprints.  Hierbei überprüft das  Scrum team is reviewing its current way of working to make it more efficient and effective in the future. The SCRUM Master supports the SCRUM team in finding good practices and improvements that will be implemented in the next Sprint. The retrospective is a common event of the SCRUM team.

(Quelle:   wikipedia)

Das Sprint Review steht am Ende des  Sprints . Hier überprüft das Team inhaltlich die umgesetzten Aufgaben und erreichten Ziele. Gegebenenfalls wird das  Product Backlog adapted.  In the Sprint Review, the involvement of customers and users is important, as they can validate the functionality achieved. If possible, intermediate products are presented to the customer ( Minimal Viable Products ) Hieraus ergibt sich wichtiges Feedback für die weitere Produktgestaltung. 

A sprint is a work stage in which a previously defined scope of tasks in the project or a portion of the development work is implemented. It begins with a Sprint Planing / Print Backlog and ends with Sprint Review  und - Retrospektive . Sprints folgen unmittelbar aufeinander. Während eines Sprints sind keine Änderungen erlaubt, die das Sprintziel beeinflussen.

A sprint usually lasts from one week to two months. Ideally, all sprints should have the same length to give the project a beat.

A standard is a comparatively uniform or unified, widely accepted and most commonly used way of describing, producing or performing something that has prevailed over other ways and means. The aim is to define the standard in such a way that the simplest, safest and most efficient process is created. For this purpose, the standard may need to be continuously adapted and improved. When deviations from the standard occur in company and production processes, three clusters of causes have emerged:

  • Geht nicht ... der Standard kann nicht eingehalten werden (technische oder organisatorische Rahmenbedingungen sind nicht ausreichend).

  • Weiß nicht ... der Standard ist dem Anwender / Mitarbeiter nicht bekannt (die Transparenz fehlt oder die Information ist nicht gelungen).

  • Don't want to ... the user / employee deliberately decides differently (out of convenience, unwillingness or because he knows a better standard).

Doesn't want ... the user / employee consciously decides differently (out of comfort, unwillingness or because he knows a better standard).

Because of the high risks involved, financing is often not organised through traditional banks, but through development banks and innovative forms of financing such as venture capital and crowdfunding. 

Often the start-ups have to deal with a young or not yet existing market and first have to find a functioning, scalable business model. Once they have found and established this model, they are generally no longer considered a start-up. Former start-ups sometimes retain the successful approaches of start-ups (such as innovative ability, flexibility, modernity, flat hierarchies), promote them through incubators, found or spin off their own divisions as start-ups, or take over start-ups through acquisitions. 

(Quelle: https://www.hallokarriere.com/arbeiten-4-0-lexikon-der-digitalisierung/)
Standings

Standings are short meetings in standing position. More and more often used for short team meetings or shop floor discussions (also in the office area).

T

To be able to react in short time sequences when planning sprints, tasks are divided into individual steps. These steps (tasks) are so small that they fit into defined time windows (for example, 2 hours, one day, ...). In this way, the task / project boards can be dynamically managed. So that larger tasks "flow" quickly through the corresponding board columns in smaller steps (from planned to in progress to completed).

The task board is a technique for visualising the current tasks in the project and the respective sprint. On it you can see at any time which  Product Backlog entries were selected for the sprint, which tasks are to be processed, how they were broken down into current tasks (steps), and in which processing state these tasks / steps are. Typically, the task board consists of four columns. The first column "Requirements" contains the Product Backlog  Einträge eingetragen, die das Entwicklungsteam für diesen Sprint ausgewählt hat – in der vom  Product Owner . The other three columns contain the tasks or tasks that are necessary to implement the respective request, in their respective processing state. The second column contains all tasks that still need to be completed, the next column contains those in process, and the last column contains all completed tasks. 

Im  Daily SCRUM  each member of the development team explains on the basis of the task board which task they worked on the day before and whether it was completed. Tasks that could not be completed in a day or where obstacles are holding up progress are marked. In this case, the tasks for removing the obstacle should be included in the task board. In this way, obstacles can be quickly identified and the removal measures made transparent.

(Quelle: wikipedia)

Team boards create transparency in the team and are an essential component of visualization and modern leadership. Through regular meetings at the team board, the manager / team leader has direct access to the team and involves all participants in the decision-making process. Team boards have three basic thematic focuses: 

  • Informationen über aktuelle Kennzahlen und Einflussgrößen (Kennzahlen-Tafel)

  • Organisation der täglichen Arbeit (Kapazität- und Aufgaben-Board)

  • Unterstützung des Verbesserungsprozesses ( Kanban -Tafel).

  • Teamtafeln werden heute immer häufiger in digitaler Form angewendet.

V

VUCA ist ein Akronym für die englischen Begriffe:

  • volatility ‚Volatilität‘ (Unbeständigkeit),

  • uncertainty ‚Unsicherheit‘,

  • complexity ‚Komplexität‘ und

  • ambiguity ‚Mehrdeutigkeit‘.

It describes the difficult framework conditions for companies in new development, market development, management and change processes.  

A strategy for survival in the VUCA world is also derived from the abbreviation VUCA, namely: vision 'vision', understanding 'understanding', clarity 'clarity', agility 'agility'. This means that agility is one of the requirements for survival in the VUCA world."

W

A webinar is an interactive seminar held over the Internet. The word creation is composed of the words web and seminar.

(Quelle: www.gruenderszene.de)

Z

In general, time sovereignty is understood as the self-determined use of one's own time. In a narrower sense, the term "time sovereignty" refers to the possibility of determining the duration and location of one's own working time.

(Quelle: https://arbeit4null.com/Infos/Glossar/)
Target states

A target state is a precisely described desired state that is to be achieved. It is essential that the target state is described in such a way that deviations from the current state become visible and thus it becomes clear which steps and fields of action are necessary to achieve the target state. The target state describes "The ideal conceivable state ... that's where we want to go" and thus provokes a "This is currently not possible because". This opens up the topics and fields of action.